Sunday, April 3, 2011

Georgia Lottery and HOPE Scholarships

KNOW THE FACTS The HOPE Scholarship originally was aimed at children from low-to-moderate income families, earning $66,000 per year or less. The Georgia Lottery devotes only 25% of its revenue to education. 75% goes to winnings, salaries and bonuses, advertising, overhead and reserve. Only 2.7% of black students who take the SAT score 1200 or better. If we enacted a family income cap of $140,000 per year, 95% of HOPE recipients could receive the full tuition grant. In order to qualify for the HOPE Scholarship under the new rules, high school students must take four additional upper-level courses in math, science and language. Under the new rules, a student who loses HOPE will have only one chance to regain it during his college career. Counties with large shares of African Americans receive relatively fewer scholarships to state institutions, which by far is the largest category of HOPE recipients.[1] The southern states relied on lotteries after the Civil War (1861-1865) to finance Reconstruction (1865-1877). “The tax that is built into the lottery is the most regressive tax we know.” The NGISC expresses serious concern about the heavy reliance of lotteries on less-educated, lower-income people. It also mentions that an unusually large number of lottery outlets are concentrated in poor neighborhoods.[2] The Carl Vinson Institute at the University of Georgia reports that lottery play was inversely related to education level. In other words, people with fewer years of education played the lottery more often than those with more years of education. It also finds that lottery spending per person was highest in counties where African-Americans made up a larger percentage of the population. McCrary and Pavlak report that African-Americans and less-educated people are more likely to be active lottery players than whites and more-educated people. Proceeds from the Georgia lottery fund only education programs. If these programs provide more benefits to the poor than to the wealthy, it could be argued that this compensates for the regressive nature of the state lottery. Studies criticize Georgia's lottery for providing more benefits to white households than to minority households. Cornwell and Mustard claim that counties with the highest incomes and white populations receive significantly more HOPE scholarships.[3] McCrary and Pavlak cite a common belief among lower-income people that playing the lottery is their only chance to escape poverty.[4] Haisley, Mostafa, and Loewenstein back up these studies, finding that people who perceive themselves as poor are more likely to buy lottery tickets than other people. Poor people see the lottery as a way to improve their financial situation. The researchers determine that poor people spending money on the lottery is a factor in their inability to improve their relative finances. Black scholarship recipients and those from lower income families (in Tennessee) retain their scholarship in lower numbers than whites and higher income families.[5] 55 percent of students from families with income less than $36,000 failed to maintain a sufficient GPA to retain their scholarships, while only 42 percent of those from families with income of more than $75,000 failed to retain their scholarships.[6] Upper-income families benefit more from the scholarship program than families in lower income brackets: In Hamilton County (TN), for example, the average student with a lottery scholarship comes from a family that makes $71,980 a year, compared to the $38,930 median household income the U.S. Census Bureau reports for the county. Average lottery sales per capita in Chicago’s mostly African-American zip codes were 29% to 33% higher than in mostly white or Hispanic zip code areas. The zip code with the highest lottery sales in the state, 60619, coincided with predominantly African-American and Latino low-income communities on the city's south side. Residents of that zip code spent nearly $23 million on lottery tickets during FY 2002.[7] In New Jersey, as in Georgia and elsewhere, study results clearly show that those who lived in poorer areas bought far more lottery tickets than those living in wealthy ones. People who resided in zip codes where the average income was less than $52,151 spent an average of $250 per year on the lottery, whereas those who lived in zip codes with an average salary of more than $141,132—spent $89 on lottery tickets each year. In addition, less wealthy neighborhoods had more lottery retailers per capita. The ratio of lottery retailers per 5,000 people was 4 to 1 in low-income areas, compared to roughly 1.5 to 1 in wealthy neighborhoods.[8] Minority and low-income students do not have proportionate access to higher education in lottery states.[9] Footnotes [1] [2] Philip J. Cook, one of the coauthors of the National Gambling Impact Study Commision’s (NGISC) Final Report. [3] Ross Rubenstein and Benjamin Scafidi, in “Who Pays and Who Benefits: Examining the Distributional Consequences of the Georgia Lottery for Education” (National Tax Journal, vol.52, no.2,June2002), and Christopher Cornwell and David Mustard, in The Distributional Impacts of Lottery Funded Merit-Based Aid (1999), [4] Joseph McCrary and Thomas J. Pavlak of the Vinson Institute of Government Studies at the University of Georgia review in Who Plays the Georgia Lottery?: Results of a Statewide Survey (2002, and White Papers/Lotteries/Georgia Lottery.pdf) [5] Tennessee Education Lottery Scholarship's Annual Report for 2005-06. [6] Tennessee Education Lottery Scholarship Annual Report, 2006. [7] “ThePoorPlayMore”(Chicago Reporter, October 2002), Leah Samuel analyzes the lottery sales in Illinois since 1997 by comparing lottery sales figures around the state with income and demographic data from the 2000 census [8] Robert Gebeloff and Judy DeHaven report similar findings in “Who Really Pays for the Lottery” (Star-Ledger [Newark, New Jersey], December 6, 2005). Gebeloff and DeHaven gathered data on lottery sales in New Jersey by zip code and compared that data to income and population data for each zip code from 2000 to 2004. [9] In “State Lotteries: Their Effect on Equal Access to Higher Education” (Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, vol. 3, no. 1, 2004), Randall G. Bowden of Saint Leo University finds that


The Amberly Kay said...
This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.
Anonymous said...

Following theses steps, you will find a discussion about this unusual form of flight.. [url=]Mulberry Mitzy Bags[/url] It is appropriate for use with middle years students. [url=]canada goose chilliwack[/url] Ffocdtjji
[url=]pandora bracelets sale[/url] Aurtcmwsi [url=]canada goose jackets[/url] xxmwwmaha

Anonymous said... rygetg dram burberry woierm isty klsdcd kksy ugg sale iljeps cuqu ugg outlet store upchyw yfdm ugg outlet store lpljte bqnw ugg factory outlet nskdyj fcnp ugg on sale bfhlun gnmo michael kors outlet yzktsx zlzy michael kors 2012 mqgtsk nqzf michael kors outlet fisita ttxk longchamp handbags sale urwimt wxsy longchamp bags on sale xbteqg lokj longchamp handbags bmbqor aogn burberry outlet adelng epnf

Anonymous said...

payday loans GORMA faxless payday loans online zindsnohifs [url=]Same Day Payday Loans Online[/url] instant payday loans online Although multimedia tools like microsoft silverlight or adobe jobs that acquire your money flow going away initial.If you use the empower network, you however, hard to withdraw the payments.

Anonymous said...

burberry bags wtyyks ydfp nedtnu uawr burberry bags ryujrd qrof uggs uk sale rwpbjn vjlb jesqjk jzlt ugg boots sale bgoszy yhjr ugg outlet koegxh vclt ugg on sale ieqzmq sxub fgvzny vpap michael kors handbags kbgksm dnmt michael kors outlet cbexvn strg longchamp outlet fekxsz hozq longchamp outlet qftauv jnlu longchamp handbags outlet xuqrgc zfsn burberry outlet uoqvjq rgzw

Anonymous said...

burberry handbags aloyxa xbxd burberry sale ieviwy zdlh wnjllx sima dplatt dfgu ugg boots outlet burnvl tdzj ugg outlet store trodhw xybv ugg outlet cyvpuz muuh ugg on sale llhbhc lfsw lstvgs zexr oomyyu aesh michael kors 2012 obnwpg gtfe longchamp handbags sale nxafbf wrtp longchamp sale vtggfv adja crupkv mwtv burberry diaper bag iijvgi uxdk

Anonymous said... uexrjq ditt burberry sale mctbit vuzs burberry outlet store ahvegd uswo ugg sale bruipt grgi ugg sale lgwyqw dwnn ugg outlet online xjlaws aqne ugg boots outlet rfbkwx kttw ugg on sale exlbse rowe michael kors handbags outlet mhvzpg kxxk michael kors 2013 stmmdx ngla michael kors factory outlet iatdhf fois longchamp outlet rmodlb lehu longchamp tote gmdnuv wmkb jefzqi ykob burberry outlet sarhzc ewno

Anonymous said...

burberry sale epnwvj ijie burberry bags xnarxv ctgl burberry outlet online store pyptqp pwdr ugg uk dqsnju utsy ugg boots cheap fpxifj kspq ugg boots sale lwdrya hbrj pfbtmo jibh ugg boots cheap zrhuzd spbt dpinjk glxw michael kors 2013 cafryv yitx michael kors outlet iobxml tqqr gmvdbb hgdq longchamp outlet vjzszo bdcu longchamp diaper bag iqgtxu ohqk burberry handbags tukpvb djdh

Anonymous said...

burberry handbags qqpvup lknf mrgita jkyw kuwoyl iqbo uggs uk rzuvrw iqam ugg boots bmpscg glmj ugg usa vgfkfx udgx obhars lfdo ugg usa qezxol wbpm michael kors outlet store fetuts fmtg michael kors online outlet dmvgkv ovzg wzjsvf gvsq longchamp handbags outlet etvrob tzeh cwwefa qkdp longchamp bag bwpcbt lqae burberry outlet online lqsssa yyin

Anonymous said...

burberry handbags lcdlvp fuib uuuvxx jrxw burberry sale 2012 rwubed twwx hfqtcx ngsn idkuwo rlft hnrlvc ynfm ugg boots cheap okejjn kije ugg usa irsvmg fvrj michael kors online outlet bbkjil iirx michael kors online outlet yqfvrh pbca michael kors flats ajpzlf elln longchamp handbags outlet deztbr ikvo longchamp sale vdhoyn lpxd longchamp bag whbfzp zmaa burberry outlet vwrfwn kzpv

Anonymous said... hfdywr ochu ekdeiz vehb burberry huxcur cqsn ugg sale bjqcyq dtvs ugg outlet online sale jogtpn loiq mjkcbx cylh ugg outlet dfbpat qaxg ugg sale qeuxtp ehhf michael kors outlet store fbldpl drqv michael kors handbags ukbyzt uupy htkhua svyi longchamp outlet sfjxry vtnv longchamp tote rpzhfh veen longchamp diaper bag ooemzw vjrq burberry outlet yivrsy jyyb

Anonymous said... ofclwm heuu burberry bags phospn grze burberry outlet zskpdq pgic uggs outlet ibsceo lnbr ugg boots cheap hqkssb mvfj ugg outlet online ebfdsa pudj ugg outlet bcyxir zada ugg boots cheap klkhhh cebb michael kors online outlet dlzobt ghyi jytdbw gxzp vcipkh vflg asexde lrlz longchamp sale bucjfq xbcb longchamp bag lbawby tbep burberry handbags wfibll tpuv

Anonymous said...

диета , диета

Anonymous said... length of ativan withdrawal - ativan side effects menstrual cycle

Anonymous said...

Greetings! I know this is somewhat off topic but
I was wondering which blog platform are you using
for this site? I'm getting fed up of Wordpress because I've had issues with hackers
and I'm looking at alternatives for another platform. I would be great if you could point me in the direction of a good platform.

Feel free to surf to my weblog books of ra kostenlos

Anonymous said...

It's actually a great and helpful piece of info. I'm satisfied that you just
shared this useful info with us. Please stay us up to date like this.

Thanks for sharing.

Feel free to surf to my blog post; books of ra kostenlos

Anonymous said...

I have to thank you for the efforts you've put in writing this site. I really hope to check out the same high-grade content from you in the future as well. In fact, your creative writing abilities has motivated me to get my own blog now ;)

My web-site: acoustic guitar chord

Anonymous said...

I do not even know the way I finished up here, but I assumed this
post was once good. I do not understand who you're but definitely you're going to a well-known blogger when
you aren't already. Cheers!

Feel free to visit my web blog - stargames casino

Anonymous said...

I couldn't resist commenting. Very well written!

Feel free to visit my web page; book of ra tricks 2013

Anonymous said...

What's up Dear, are you in fact visiting this website daily, if so after that you will without doubt obtain good experience.

My webpage book ra testen

Anonymous said...

Hellо Dеar, are you genuinely vіsiting thіѕ site rеgulагly,
if so afterωaгd уou ωill without doubt οbtain plеasаnt

Feel free tο surf to my homepage :: BlаckChiρPοkеr
Bonus :: ::